A common obstacle preventing the rapid deployment of supervised machine learning algorithms is the lack of labeled training data. This is particularly expensive to obtain for structured prediction tasks, where each training instance may have multiple, interacting labels, all of which must be correctly annotated for the instance to be of use to the learner. Traditional active learning addresses this problem by optimizing the order in which the examples are labeled to increase learning efficiency. However, this approach does not consider the difficulty of labeling each example, which can vary widely in structured prediction tasks. For example, the labeling predicted by a partially trained system may be easier to correct for some instances than for others. We propose a new active learning paradigm which reduces not only how many instances the annotator must label, but also how difficult each instance is to annotate. The system also leverages information from partially correct predictions to efficiently solicit annotations from the user. We validate this active learning framework in an interactive information extraction system, reducing the total number of annotation actions by 22%.


  author = {Aron Culotta and Andrew McCallum},
  title = {Reducing labeling effort for structured prediction tasks},
  shortbooktitle = {AAAI},
  booktitle = {The Twentieth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)},
  address = {Pittsburgh, PA},
  pages = {746--751},
  year = {2005},