To successfully embed statistical machine learning models in real world applications, two post-deployment capabilities must be provided: (1) the ability to solicit user corrections and (2) the ability to update the model from these corrections. We refer to the former capability as corrective feedback and the latter as persistent learning. While these capabilities have a natural implementation for simple classification tasks such as spam filtering, we argue that a more careful design is required for structured classification tasks. One example of a structured classification task is information extraction, in which raw text is analyzed to automatically populate a database. In this work, we augment a probabilistic information extraction system with corrective feedback and persistent learning components to assist the user in building, correcting, and updating the extraction model. We describe methods of guiding the user to incorrect predictions, suggesting the most informative fields to correct, and incorporating corrections into the inference algorithm. We also present an active learning framework that minimizes not only how many examples a user must label, but also how difficult each example is to label. We empirically validate each of the technical components in simulation and quantify the user effort saved. We conclude that more efficient corrective feedback mechanisms lead to more effective persistent learning. #### Citation


  author = {Aron Culotta and Trausti Kristjansson and Andrew McCallum and Paul Viola},
  title = {Corrective Feedback and Persistent Learning for Information Extraction},
  journal = {Artificial Intelligence},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {170},
  pages = {1101--1122},